Novel pathogenic variant in the HRAS gene with lethal outcome and a broad phenotypic spectrum among Polish patients with Costello syndrome
Costello syndrome (CS) is a rare congenital disorder from the group of RASopathies, characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, failure to thrive, cardiac and skin anomalies, intellectual disability, and a predisposition to neoplasia. CS is associated with germline mutations in the proto-oncogene HRAS, a small GTPase from the Ras family. In this study, a molecular and clinical analysis was carried out in eight Polish patients with the Costello phenotype. A molecular test showed two known heterozygous mutations in the first coding exon of the gene in seven patients: p.G12S (n=4) and p.G12A (n=3), and a novel pathogenic variant p.G60V in one child with an unusually severe, lethal course of the syndrome. In addition, a fatal course of CS was present in one patient with the p.G12A mutation and in another with p.G12S, there was a co-occurrence of Turner syndrome because of the distal Xp deletion. A severe clinical manifestation with a lethal outcome in an individual with p.G60V in HRAS and contrary observations of an attenuated phenotype in CS patients with other mutations at glycine-60 residue may suggest that the nature of the substituted amino acid plays a significant role in the clinical variability observed in some CS cases.