Cost-effectiveness Comparison of Monovalent C Versus Quadrivalent ACWY Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccination in Canada

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Abstract

Background:

In Quebec, 1 dose of monovalent C meningococcal conjugate vaccine (Men-C-Con) is offered at 12 months of age and a booster dose in grade 9 (14–15 years of age). In other Canadian provinces, a quadrivalent vaccine against serogroups ACWY (Men-4-Con) is increasingly used for adolescents. An economic analysis was performed to assess the value of a switch from Men-C-Con to Men-4-Con.

Methods:

A compartmental static simulation model was developed to assess the burden of invasive meningococcal disease due to serogroups AWY (AWY-IMD) in a cohort of 100,000 persons with different vaccination programs. Univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses were performed, including variation in vaccine price difference ($12; range: $0–$20), AWY-IMD rate (0.08/100,000 to 0.28/100,000 person-years), level of herd immunity generated by adolescent vaccination (from zero to disease elimination) and discounting rate (0%, 3% or 6%).

Results:

In the low AWY-IMD rate base scenario, replacing Men-C-Con by Men-4-Con for adolescents would reduce disease burden by 16% (no herd effect) to 58% (moderate herd effect), with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratios between $445,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) and $167,000/QALY in a societal perspective. In the high AWY-IMD rate scenario, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio would be in the range of $97,000/QALY to $19,000/QALY.

Conclusion:

Based on the epidemiologic conditions in Quebec and in most other Canadian provinces, the benefits of Men-4-Con in reducing the burden of disease would be low for a high cost. The switch would, however, be more economically attractive with a much higher incidence rate (as in a few provinces) or with a reduced vaccine price in conditions assuming a moderate to high herd effect.

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