Tubulopapillary Cystic Adenoma With Apocrine Differentiation: A Unifying Concept for Syringocystadenoma Papilliferum, Apocrine Gland Cyst, and Tubular Papillary Adenoma

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Abstract

Syringocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP), apocrine gland cyst (AGC, also called apocrine hidrocystoma or apocrine cystadenoma), and tubular papillary adenoma (TPA) with apocrine differentiation are defined as proliferations of apocrine epithelium with myoepithelial cells. At Sapporo Dermatopathology Institute, we retrieved 308 benign neoplastic lesions diagnosed as SCAP, AGC, or TPA and combinations of these entities. Among the 308 lesions, 202 (66%) exhibited features of only one type, of which 144 (47%) were AGC, 39 (13%) were TPA, and 19 (6%) were SCAP. The other 106 lesions (34%) had features of 2 or more types, including 56 lesions that were AGC + TPA (18%), 2 that were AGC + SCAP (1%), 34 that were TPA + SCAP (11%), and 14 that were AGC + TPA + SCAP (5%). The most frequent site of these lesions was the face (56%), followed by the scalp (13%). Lesions with the features of AGC were more frequently found on the face, especially the periocular region, than at other sites. TPA lesions were more frequent on the face and scalp than at other sites, whereas SCAP lesions were preferentially found on the face, scalp, and trunk. We also retrieved clinicopathological data and other information. We propose a unifying concept for AGC, TPA, and SCAP. Approximately one-third of these lesions are composite entities with the features of 2 or 3 different tumors, and we propose calling such tumors tubulopapillary cystic adenoma with apocrine differentiation.

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