Risk Factors Associated With : United States, 2002–2005Bordetella pertussis: United States, 2002–2005 Among Infants ≤4 Months of Age in the Pre-Tdap Era: United States, 2002–2005
In the United States, infants have the highest reported pertussis incidence and death rates. Improved understanding of infant risk factors is needed to optimize prevention strategies.Methods
We prospectively enrolled infants ≤4 months of age with incident-confirmed pertussis from 4 sites during 2002–2005 (preceding pertussis antigen-containing vaccination recommendations for adolescents/adults); each case-patient was age and site matched with 2 control subjects. Caregivers completed structured interviews. Infants and their contacts ≥11 years of age were offered serologic testing for IgG; being seropositive was defined as ≥94 antipertussis toxin IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units per milliliter.Results:
Enrolled subjects (115 case-patients; 230 control subjects) had 4396 contacts during incubation periods; 83 (72%) case-patients had ≥1 contact with prolonged (≥5 days) new cough in primary or secondary households. In multivariable analysis, the odds for pertussis were higher for infants with primary/secondary household contacts who had a prolonged new cough, compared with infants who did not. These contacts included mother [adjusted matched odds ratio (aMOR), 43.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 6.45–298.0] and ≥1 nonmother contact (aMOR, 20.1; 95% CI, 6.48–62.7). Infants receiving breast milk with 0–1 formula feedings daily had decreased pertussis odds (aMOR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.08–0.89), compared with those receiving more formula. Of 41 tested case-patients, 37 (90%) were seropositive.Conclusions:
Pertussis in infants was associated with prolonged new cough (≥5 days) in infants’ household contacts. Findings suggest that breastfeeding protects against pertussis and warrants recommendation with pertussis prevention strategies, which currently include pertussis vaccination of pregnant mothers and infants’ close contacts.