The Association Between Celiac Disease and Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Mayo Experience and Meta-analysis of the Literature

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Abstract

Background:

The association between celiac disease (CD) and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has been the focus of multiple studies with variable results. Both diseases are immune mediated, and dietary triggers play a role in their pathogenesis.

Objectives:

The aim of the study was to analyze the risk of EoE in children with CD, assess the magnitude of association between CD and EoE in children, and report the characteristics and outcomes of children with both conditions.

Methods:

We conducted a retrospective study of the Mayo Clinic Electronic medical records between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2015. Systematic review and meta-analysis of multiple databases was conducted to include studies reporting on the same association. Random-effects model was used to report pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).

Results:

In this cohort study, of 10,201 children who underwent at least 1 endoscopy, 595 had EoE, and 546 had CD. The risk of having EoE was not increased in children with CD compared to those without CD (OR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.154–0.545). Nine of 10 children improved with gluten-free diet, topical glucocorticosteroid, and/or elimination diet. One child lost to follow-up.

Results:

Meta-analysis of 5 studies showed similar results (OR, 0.525; 95% CI, 0.364–0.797). A total of 45 cases in the literature had both CD and EoE (mean age, 10 years; 64% boys; majority presenting with abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea).

Conclusions:

Based on our cohort and the observational data, the diagnosis of CD in children is not associated with increased risk of EoE.

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