Effect of Implant Position and Edentulous Span Length on Stresses Around Implants Assisting Claspless Distal Extension Partial Overdentures: An In Vitro Study.
The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of implant position and edentulous span length on stresses around implants assisting claspless distal extension partial overdentures. Four bilateral mandibular distal extension acrylic models were constructed. Two implants were inserted in the distal extension ridges parallel to each other and perpendicular to the ridges. Based on the implant position, models were categorized into two groups: Group I, mesial implants position and Group II, distal implant position. Each group was subdivided into 2 subgroups according to the length of edentulous span: Subgroup a, long span and Subgroup b, short span. Four claspless partial overdentures were fabricated on the models and retained to the implants with ball-and-socket attachments. Three strain gauges were cemented to the acrylic resin at buccal, lingual, and distal sides of each implant. Static unilateral vertical load of 60N was applied in the central fossae of the first molar, and peri-implant stresses were measured on loading and nonloading sides. Distal implant placements recorded significantly higher peri-implant stresses than did mesial implant placements. Long saddle recorded significantly higher stresses than did short saddle. The greatest peri-implant stresses were recorded with distal placement and long saddle at the loading side. At loading and nonloading sides, the mesial placement with a short saddle recorded the lowest strain. For mandibular distal extension partial overdentures, a mesially placed implant combined with short saddle may be preferable to a distally placed implant combined with long saddle, as the former was associated with reduced peri-implant stresses.