Patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer are followed with frequent cystoscopies. In this study FGFR3, TERT and OTX1 were investigated as a diagnostic urinary marker combination during followup of patients with primary nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer.Materials and Methods:
In this international, multicenter, prospective study 977 patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer were included. A total of 2,496 urine samples were collected prior to cystoscopy during regular visits. Sensitivity was estimated to detect concomitant recurrences. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to estimate the development of future recurrences after urinalysis and a negative cystoscopy.Results:
Sensitivity of the assay combination for recurrence detection was 57% in patients with primary low grade, nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. However, sensitivity was 83% for recurrences that were pT1 or muscle invasive bladder cancer. Of the cases 2% progressed to muscle invasive bladder cancer. Sensitivity for recurrence detection in patients with primary high grade disease was 72% and 7% of them had progression to muscle invasive bladder cancer. When no concomitant tumor was found by cystoscopy, positive urine samples were more frequently followed by a recurrence over time compared to a negative urine sample (58% vs 36%, p <0.001). High stage recurrences were identified within 1 year after a positive urine test and a negative cystoscopy.Conclusions:
Recurrences in patients with primary nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer can be detected by a combination of urine assays. This study supports the value of urinalysis as an alternative diagnostic tool in patients presenting with low grade tumors and as a means to identify high stage tumors earlier.