Cardiometabolic biomarkers are predictors of readmission and death in patients hospitalized for acute dyspnea

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Abstract

Background:

Acute dyspnea affects a large heterogeneous patient group with high mortality and readmission rates.

Purpose:

To investigate if cardiometabolic biomarkers and clinical characteristics predict readmission and death in patients hospitalized for acute dyspnea.

Methods:

65 dyspnea patients at a general internal medicine ward were followed for six months. The combined endpoint was readmission or death.

Measurements and results:

Cardiometabolic biomarkers at admission were related to the endpoint in Cox proportional hazard models (adjusted for sex, age, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate and C-reactive protein (CRP)). The biomarkers tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), prolactin (PRL), tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 6 (FAS) and C-C motif chemokine 3 (CCL3) were independently and significantly related to the endpoint and combined into a biomarker risk score (BRS). Each SD increment of the BRS conferred a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.13 (1.39–3.27) P= 0.001. The top vs bottom tertile of the BRS conferred a HR of 4.75 (1.93–11.68) P= 0.001. Dyspnea severity was also associated with worse outcome, HR = 3.43 (1.28–9.20) P= 0.014. However, when mutually adjusted the BRS remained significant (P = 0.004) whereas dyspnea severity was not. The BRS was related to the endpoint among patients with mild to moderate dyspnea (P = 0.016) but not among those with severe dyspnea.

Conclusion:

A score of tPA, PRL, FAS and CCL3 predicts 6-month death and readmission in patients hospitalized for acute dyspnea and may prove useful to optimize length of stay and follow-up. Although the BRS outweighs dyspnea severity in prediction of the endpoint, its prognostic role is strongest in mild-moderate dyspnea.

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