Tioconazole-loaded nanocapsule suspensions and its coating with a cationic polymer were developed for nail drug delivery. The colloidal systems presented a nanometric size around 155 nm for uncoated nanoparticles and 162 nm for those with the cationic coating, with negative and positive zeta potential values, respectively. Both nanosuspensions showed drug content close to theoretical values (1 mg mL− 1), association efficiency close to 100% (HPLC) and were able to control tioconazol release. The developed formulations showed in vitro antifungal activity (agar diffusion method) against C. albicans. The cationic nanocapsules were considered bioadhesive, showed higher viscosity and were chosen to be incorporated into an ungueal formulation. Pullulan nanobased nail formulation showed adequate viscosity for nail application and drug content close to the theoretical values. It was equivalent to the commercial formulation Trosid® in preventing nail infection by T. rubrum in an in vitro onychomycosis model. The nanocapsule suspensions and Pullulan nanobased nail formulation showed lower irritant potential than the commercial formulation and than free drug in an in vitro evaluation. Pullulan nanobased nail formulation is promising for the treatment of onychomycosis.