Tenfold risk increase of major cardiovascular events after high limb amputation with non-compliance for secondary prevention measures

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Abstract

Background

The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of compliance with lifestyle recommendations and medication on 1-year prevention of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) after trans-femoral amputation (TFA).

Methods

In this prospective single-center interventional cohort study, 179 consecutive T2D patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent 1-year follow-up examination after TFA in 2013. Lower limb and coronary artery CT angiography were provided before surgery; physical examination and laboratory tests were performed at baseline and every month after TFA for 1 year. A total of 77 patients (43%) were defined as compliant. They followed all recommendations, including >80% drug intake (anti-diabetic, antihypertensive drugs, dual antiplatelet and statin treatment), healthy diet, smoking cessation, physical exercise ≥30 min/day. A total of 102 patients (57%) were non-compliant (drug intake ≤80%, and did not fully follow lifestyle change recommendations).

Results

There were no significant differences at baseline between the two groups. Fuster-BEWAT score in 1 year was 9.83 ± 3.1 in compliant and 7.74 ± 2.9 in non-compliant patients (p = 0.0001). At 1-year follow-up, there were 43 myocardial infarctions (40 patients (93%) were non-compliant) and 28 deaths (26 cases (92.8%) were non-compliant). Patients from the non-compliant group with three- and two-vessel obstructive CAD had higher 1-year MACE rate than those with one-vessel obstructive and non-obstructive CAD (95.24% and 70.5% versus 17.2% and 8.6%; p < 0.0001); more proximal coronary lesions were related to a worse prognosis.

Conclusions

Non-compliant diabetic patients had a tenfold increased risk for MACE within 1 year after TFA.

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