Sonographic Dynamic Description of the Laryngeal Tract: Definition of Quantitative Measures to Characterize Vocal Fold Motion and Estimation of Their Normal Values
Vocal fold motion was analyzed during free breathing using two-dimensional dynamic ultrasound imaging. Two cadavers were first analyzed to define easily identifiable landmarks. Motion of the laryngeal tract was then analyzed in an axial plane. Left and right arytenoids and thyroid cartilage were defined on images corresponding to abduction and adduction of the laryngeal tract. Associated area measurements were established for 50 healthy subjects. All area indices were significantly larger during abduction than adduction. Symmetry of motion was established by comparing each hemi-larynx, and mobility fractions were defined. Normal values of laryngeal motion during free breathing were thus established.