Prophylactic Antibiotics for Enucleation and Evisceration: A Retrospective Study and Systematic Literature Review
To report surgical site infection (SSI) rates of eviscerations and enucleations with implants performed without perioperative intravenous (IV) antibiotics or postoperative oral antibiotics, and to give SSI prevention recommendations.Methods:
A single-center retrospective chart review was performed after obtaining institutional review board approval. Charts were found by Current Procedural Terminology codes. Demographics, surgical indication, procedure, implant, antibiotic use, and postoperative course were recorded. SSIs occurring within 30 days after surgery were reviewed and postoperative infection rates were determined.Results:
Four hundred eighty-one cases from January 1999 to December 2015 were analyzed. There were 102 eviscerations with implants, 314 enucleations with implants, 23 enucleations without implants, 23 implant exchanges, 15 implants placed secondarily after enucleation, and 4 implant removals. Seventy cases (14.6%) were given perioperative IV antibiotics, and in this group one periorbital infection occurred unrelated to orbital surgery (1.4%). Of the 411 cases (85.4%) not given perioperative IV antibiotics, 1 of 87 eviscerations with implants developed an SSI (1.1%), 2 of 273 enucleations with implants developed SSIs (0.7%), and none of the 13 enucleations without implants developed SSIs.Conclusions:
To our knowledge, this is the first published case series reporting SSI rates of enucleations and eviscerations with implants performed without perioperative IV antibiotics or postoperative oral antibiotics. With infection rates comparing favorably to other case series where antibiotics were given, the routine use of perioperative IV antibiotics and postoperative oral antibiotics for enucleations and eviscerations may not be indicated.