Are sleep duration, midpoint of sleep and sleep quality associated with dietary intake among Bavarian adults?
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Only few epidemiologic studies examined sleep characteristics in relation to dietary behaviour. Our aim was to analyse associations of sleep duration, midpoint of sleep and sleep quality with dietary intake among the Bavarian population.
SUBJECTS/METHODS: Within the cross-sectional Bavarian Food Consumption Survey II, 1050 subjects aged 13-81 years were recruited. Dietary intake was assessed with three 24-h dietary recalls by telephone (EPIC-Soft). In our study, 814 participants aged 18 years or older, who completed at least two 24-h dietary recalls and who had complete and plausible information on sleep characteristics were analysed. Dietary intake was described by the consumption of main food groups, energy-proving nutrients and energy intake. Sleep was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Questionnaire, from which categories of self-reported usual sleep duration in half-h-steps per night, midpoint of sleep and overall sleep quality were derived.
RESULTS: Sleep duration was associated with intake of non-alcoholic beverages (P < 0.01), carbonated beverages (P = 0.04), water (P = 0.04) and coffee/black tea (P = 0.01) with higher intake among short duration sleepers. No association was found between the consumption of other main food groups, energy-proving nutrients or total daily energy intake and sleep duration. Midpoint of sleep was associated with intake of carbonated beverages (P = 0.02, highest intake among subjects with early midpoint of sleep). No association between sleep quality and dietary intake was detected.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate only specific associations between sleep characteristics and dietary intake, and mainly sleep duration was associated with beverage intake.