Differences in mortality characteristics in neonates with Down's syndrome
Neonates with Down's syndrome (nDS) may have multiple medical issues that place them at increased risk for mortality during the newborn period. Goal of this study was to determine if there are differences in baseline characteristics, medical complications or procedures performed during hospitalization between nDS who survived versus those who died during initial hospitalization.STUDY DESIGN:
Data from 2000 to 2014 were reviewed using the Pediatric Health Information Systems (PHIS) database on all DS patients admitted to the hospital <30 days postnatal life. Baseline demographics, medical complications, procedures performed and mortality were recorded. Patients were divided into nDS patients who were discharged alive (nDS-a) versus nDS patients who died (nDS-d). Multivariate logistic analysis with odds ratios was performed to determine significant predictors of death. A P<0.05 was considered significant.RESULTS:
A total of 5737 nDS were evaluated. Overall mortality was 7.5% (431/5737). nDS-d were more likely than nDS-a to have a lower birth weight (1.0 (0.9 to 1.0)), presence of a diaphragmatic hernia (6.9 (1.9 to 25.1), or a cardiac diagnosis of a pulmonary venous abnormality (6.8 (1.9 to 24.4)), Ebstein's anomaly (3.2 (1.2 to 8.5)) or left-sided obstructive lesion (2.0 (1.3 to 3.0). nDS-d were more likely to develop hydrops (5.7 (3.5 to 9.5)) and necrotizing enterocolitis (1.7 (1.2 to 2.6)). In addition, nDS-d had significantly higher odds of requiring mechanical ventilation (20.7 (9.9 to 43.1)) or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (8.7 (4.7 to 16.1)).CONCLUSIONS:
A number of characteristics, specifically certain cardiac diagnosis, place nDS at increased risk for mortality. Furthermore, development of specific medical complications or need for particular procedures increases the odds for mortality in nDS. Caregivers should be cognizant that they are taking care of a high-risk population nDS with an increased risk for mortality if these variables are present.