Prognostic Implications of Monosomies in Patients With Multiple Myeloma

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Abstract

Background

Cytogenetic analysis aides in risk stratification for patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Although several cytogenetic aberrations have been reported to be prognostic, less is known about the association between the presence of monosomies and prognosis. The present study evaluated the prevalence and prognostic implications of monosomies in patients with MM.

Materials and Methods

Karyotypes were determined using conventional cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The prognostic effect of monosomies was evaluated by comparison with the clinical factors in MM patients with normal karyotypes.

Results

Karyotypes were successfully determined in 167 of the 170 patients with MM. Of these 167 patients, 52 (31.1%) had abnormal karyotypes. Univariable analyses showed that a normal karyotype, hypodiploidy, monosomies of chromosomes 13 and 16, deletion or monosomy of 13q14, and loss of X detected by metaphase analysis were each associated with reduced progression-free survival (P < .05 for each). Univariable analyses showed that a normal karyotype, hypodiploidy, monosomies of chromosomes 13 and 16, deletion or monosomy of 13q14 detected by metaphase analysis and FISH-determined RB1 (13q)/TP53 (17p) deletion were each associated with reduced overall survival (P < .05 for each). Multivariable analysis showed that hypodiploidy detected by metaphase analysis was independently prognostic of shorter progression-free survival (P < .05 for each) and that hypodiploidy, monosomy 16, and loss of Y chromosome and FISH-determined TP53 (17p) deletion were associated with reduced overall survival (P < .05 for each).

Conclusion

In addition to known cytogenetic abnormalities, such as monosomy 13, hypodiploidy, and TP53 (17p) deletion, monosomy 16 and loss of the Y chromosome have adverse prognostic implications in patients with MM.

Micro-Abstract

The present study evaluated the prevalence and prognostic implications of monosomies in 170 Korean patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Monosomies in chromosomes 16 and 13, TP53 (17p) deletion, and hypodiploidy had adverse prognostic implications in patients with MM.

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