Perioperative Allogenic Blood Transfusion in Renal Cell Carcinoma: Risk Factors and Effect on Long-term Outcomes

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Abstract

Micro-Abstract

We have confirmed that perioperative blood transfusions (PBTs) are associated with overall and cancer-specific mortality after nephrectomy for renal cancer. We developed a preoperative model predicting the risk of PBT. Patients with preoperative anemia and those scheduled to undergo open surgery are at an increased risk of PBT and could be candidates for perioperative optimization techniques.

Background:

We sought to create a preoperative model to predict the risk of perioperative blood transfusion (PBT) in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) undergoing nephrectomy and to evaluate the effect of PBT on long-term outcomes.

Patients and Methods:

The present retrospective study included 648 consecutive patients who had undergone radical or partial nephrectomy for RCC at a single institution. The risk factors for PBT were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. Cox proportional hazards models addressed the effect of PBT on overall and RCC-specific mortality.

Results:

A total of 62 patients (10%) received a median of 2 red blood cell units (interquartile range, 2-3; range 1-20). On multivariable logistic regression analysis, 2 preoperative factors were independently associated with receipt of PBT: preoperative anemia (odds ratio, 6.28; P < .001) and open surgery (odds ratio, 3.40; P < .001). The risk of receiving PBT was high with both risk factors present (34%), intermediate with 1 risk factor present (7%-12%), and low with 0 risk factors present (2%). Within a median follow-up period of 63 months (interquartile range, 32-91), 108 patients (17%) had died of RCC and 177 (27%) had died of any cause. In the multivariable Cox models, PBT remained independently associated with overall mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.86; P = .004) and RCC-specific mortality (HR, 1.79; P = .007). A dose-dependent association of PBT with RCC-specific mortality was observed (HR, 1.14; P = .01).

Conclusion:

In patients undergoing surgery for RCC, PBT was associated with adverse overall and RCC-specific mortality. Patients with preoperative anemia and those scheduled to undergo open surgery are at an increased risk of PBT and could be candidates for perioperative optimization techniques.

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