Vascular Adaptations to Habitual Exercise in Older Adults: Time for the Sex Talk

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Regular exercise is promoted as a therapeutic strategy for age-associated endothelial dysfunction. Improvements in endothelial function are observed with endurance exercise in older men, but are diminished or absent in older women. This article examines the hypothesis that sex hormones modulate vascular adaptations to exercise training by influencing antioxidant defense systems, mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and intracellular signaling.

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