Impact of lifestyle intervention for obese women during pregnancy on maternal metabolic and inflammatory markers

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Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Offspring of obese mothers have increased risk of developing obesity and related short- and long-term disease. The cause is multifactorial and may partly be explained by the unfavorable intrauterine environment. Intervention during pregnancy leading to a healthier lifestyle among obese may alter this.

OBJECTIVE:

To assess the effect of lifestyle intervention on markers of maternal metabolism and inflammation in ‘the TOP (Treatment of Obese Pregnant Women) study', a randomized controlled trial.

METHODS:

In the TOP-study 425 participants with body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 were randomized to intervention with dietary advices and physical activity assessed by pedometer (PA+D), physical activity assessed by pedometer (PA) or control (C). Of 389 participants completing the study 376 had available blood samples. Serum was analyzed for insulin, c-peptide, lipid profile, leptin, high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) and Soluble urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR), in week 18-20 and 28-30, and simultaneously a 2-h oral glucose-tolerance-test was performed. Diet was assessed in gestational week 11-14 and 36-37 using a validated 360-item Food Frequency Questionnaire.

RESULTS:

Median levels of hsCRP in gestational week 28-30 were lower in each of the intervention groups (8.3 mg/l in PA+D group, P = 0.03; and 8.8 mg/l in PA group, P = 0.02) versus the control group (11.5 mg/l). Obtaining 11 000 steps per day as aimed for resulted in a 21% lower hsCRP compared to non-compliant women. Women reporting high carbohydrate intake had around 30% higher hsCRP concentrations in late gestation than women reporting the lowest intake. There were no differences in lipid profile or any of the metabolic markers in gestational week 28-30 when comparing the intervention and control groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

Lifestyle intervention in obese women can reduce hsCRP representing a marker of inflammation during pregnancy. The effect may partly be mediated by more physical activity and partly by changes in intake of carbohydrates and the glycaemic load.

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