Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: new hope in the management of valvular heart disease

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Abstract

Severe calcific aortic stenosis is relatively common, and unless treated with valve replacement it carries an adverse prognosis. A large number of patients, however, are denied surgery due to their advanced age or coexistent medical conditions that increase perioperative cardiovascular risks. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), a technique in which a bioprosthetic valve is inserted via a catheter and implanted within the diseased native aortic valve, is a new therapeutic modality for treatment of older patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis and other comorbidities, who have an inherently high surgical risk. This review will provide an overview of the pivotal trials in the development of TAVI; while also investigating important complications and limitations of the procedure and evaluating how new valves are being designed and clinically evaluated, with the ultimate goal of reducing potential complications and expanding the use of TAVI to lower-risk patient cohorts.

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