Association Between Infant Feeding Modes and Gastroesophageal Reflux: A Repeated Measurement Analysis of the Infant Feeding Practices Study II

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid



Gastroesophageal reflux in neonates is frequently reported by parents, potentially motivating changes in infant feeding mode and/or addition of solid food.


The authors prospectively analyzed associations between repeated measurement of feeding modes and reflux in infancy.


The Infant Feeding Practices Study II, conducted between 2005 and 2007 (2,841 infants), provides data on reflux and feeding modes at nine time points from months 1 to 12. Feeding modes were defined based on direct breastfeeding, feeding of bottled human milk, formula feeding, their combinations, and use of solid food. Repeated measurements were investigated using 1-month delayed models to estimate risk ratios (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Risk ratios of different feeding modes were estimated for reflux; addressing a reverse association, RRs for feeding mode were estimated as responses to prior reflux.


Compared to direct breastfeeding, combinations with formula feeding showed a statistically significant risk for reflux (bottled human milk plus formula feeding: RR = 2.19, 95% CI [1.11, 4.33]; formula feeding: RR = 1.95, 95% CI [1.39, 2.74]; and mixed breastfeeding plus formula feeding: RR = 1.59, 95% CI [1.40, 2.42]). Addition of solid food was not protective (RR = 1.21, 95% CI [0.86, 1.70]). Analyses of reverse association (reflux → feeding) showed fewer breastfed infants among those with reflux in the prior month.


Any combination of infant feeding with formula seems to be a risk for reflux. Although breastfeeding was protective, mothers with a child with reflux were more likely to wean their child.

Related Topics

    loading  Loading Related Articles