We aimed to evaluate the potential benefits and adverse effects of adding a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and/or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), as standard treatment in patients with diabetic nephropathy.Materials and Methods:
We scanned the Embase, PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for human clinical trials published in English until June 2016, evaluating renal outcomes in patients with diabetic nephropathy.Results:
A total of 18 randomized controlled trials involving 1,786 patients were included. Compared with ACEI/ARB alone, co-administration of MRA and ACEI/ARB significantly reduced urinary albumin excretion and the urinary albumin–creatinine ratio (mean difference −69.38, 95% confidence intervals −103.53 to −35.22, P < 0.0001; mean difference −215.74, 95% confidence intervals −409.22 to −22.26, P = 0.03, respectively). A decrease of blood pressure was also found in the co-administration of MRA and ACEI/ARB groups. However, we did not observe any improvement in the glomerular filtration rate. There was a significant increase in the risk of hyperkalemia on the addition of MRA to ACEI/ARB treatment (relative risk 3.74, 95% confidence intervals 2.30–6.09, P < 0.00001).Conclusions:
These findings suggest that co-administration of MRA and ACEI/ARB has beneficial effects on renal outcomes with increasing the incidence of hyperkalemia.