Redox regulation of cardiovascular inflammation – Immunomodulatory function of mitochondrial and Nox-derived reactive oxygen and nitrogen species

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Abstract

Oxidative stress is a major hallmark of cardiovascular diseases although a causal link was so far not proven by large clinical trials. However, there is a close association between oxidative stress and inflammation and increasing evidence for a causal role of (low-grade) inflammation for the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases, which may serve as the missing link between oxidative stress and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. With the present review we would like to highlight the multiple redox regulated pathways in inflammation, discuss the sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that are of interest for these processes and finally discuss the importance of angiotensin II (AT-II) as a trigger of cardiovascular inflammation and the initiation and progression of cardiovascular diseases.

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