Topographic mapping of left ventricular regional contractile injury in ischemic mitral regurgitation
Restrictive leaflet tethering resulting from regional left ventricular (LV) contractile injury causes ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR). We hypothesized that 3-dimensional LV topographic mapping by MRI-based multiparametric strain analysis could characterize the regional contractile injury patterns that differentiate ischemic coronary artery disease patients who have ischemic MR from those who do not.Methods:
Magnetic resonance imaging-based multiparametric strain data were calculated for 15,300 LV grid points in 100 normal volunteers. Strain parameters from ischemic MR (n = 10) and ischemic no-MR (n = 36) patients were then normalized to this normal human strain database with z score quantification of standard deviation from the normal mean. Mean multiparametric strain z scores were calculated for 18 LV subregions (basilar/mid/apical levels; 6 LV regions). Mean strain z scores for papillary muscle-related (basilar/mid levels of anterolateral, posterolateral, and posterior) and nonpapillary muscle-related (all other) subregions were compared between ischemic MR and ischemic no-MR groups.Results:
Across all patients, contractile injury was greater in the papillary muscle-related regions compared with the nonpapillary regions (P = .007). In the papillary regions, contractile injury was greater in the ischemic MR group compared with the no-MR group (z scores, 1.91 ± 1.13 vs 1.20 ± 1.01, respectively; P < .001). Strain values in the nonpapillary muscle-related subregions were not different between the 2 groups (1.31 ± 1.04 vs 1.20 ± 1.03; P = .301).Conclusions:
Multiparametric strain analysis demonstrated severe normalized contractile injury in the papillary muscle-related LV subregions in patients with ischemic MR. The mean degree of normalized injury approached 2 standard deviations and was significantly worse than the levels seen in ischemic no-MR patients.