Nanoaggregation of inclusion complexes of glibenclamide with cyclodextrins
Glibenclamide is a sulfonylurea used for the oral treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. This drug shows low bioavailability as consequence of its low solubility. In order to solve this problem, the interaction with cyclodextrin has been proposed. This study tries to provide an explanation about the processes involved in the formation of GB-βCDs complexes, which have been interpreted in different ways by several authors. Among native cyclodextrins, βCD presents the most appropriate cavity to host glibenclamide molecules showing AL solubility diagrams (K1:1 ≈ 1700 M−1).
However, Symbol solubility profiles were found for βCD derivatives, highlighting the coexistence of several phenomena involved in the drug solubility enhancement. At low CD concentration, the formation of inclusion complexes can be studied and the stability constants can be calculated (K1:1 ≈ 1400 M−1). Whereas at high CD concentration, the enhancement of GB solubility would be mainly attributed to the formation of nanoaggregates of CD and GB-CD complexes (sizes between 100 and 300 nm). The inclusion mode into βCD occurs through the cyclohexyl ring of GB, adopting a semi-folded conformation which maximizes the hydrogen bond network.
As consequence of all these phenomena, a 150-fold enhancement of drug solubility has been achieved using β-cyclodextrin derivatives. Thus, its use has proven to be an interesting tool to improve the oral administration of glibenclamide in accordance with dosage bulk and dose/solubility ratio requirements.