The two major isoforms of the oncogenic Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase, p210 and p190, are expressed upon the Philadelphia chromosome translocation. p210 is the hallmark of chronic myelogenous leukemia, whereas p190 occurs in the majority of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Differences in protein interactions and activated signaling pathways that may be associated with the different diseases driven by p210 and p190 are unknown. We have performed a quantitative comparative proteomics study of p210 and p190. Strong differences in the interactome and tyrosine phosphoproteome were found and validated. Whereas the AP2 adaptor complex that regulates clathrin-mediated endocytosis interacts preferentially with p190, the phosphatase Sts1 is enriched with p210. Stronger activation of the Stat5 transcription factor and the Erk1/2 kinases is observed with p210, whereas Lyn kinase is activated by p190. Our findings provide a more coherent understanding of Bcr-Abl signaling, mechanisms of leukemic transformation, resulting disease pathobiology and responses to kinase inhibitors.