Procoagulant activity in patients with combined type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease: No effects of long-term exercise training
We investigated the effects of 12-month exercise training on hypercoagulability in patients with combined type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. Associations with severity of disease were further explored. Patients (n = 131) were randomized to exercise training or a control group. Blood was collected at inclusion and after 12 months. Tissue factor, free and total tissue factor pathway inhibitor, prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2) and D-dimer were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and ex vivo thrombin generation by the calibrated automated thrombogram assay. Tissue factor and ex vivo thrombin generation increased from baseline to 12 months (p < 0.01, all), with no significant differences in changes between groups. At baseline, free and total tissue factor pathway inhibitor significantly correlated to fasting glucose (p < 0.01, both) and HbA1c (p < 0.05, both). In patients with albuminuria (n = 34), these correlations were strengthened, and elevated levels of D-dimer, free and total tissue factor pathway inhibitor (p < 0.01, all) and decreased ex vivo thrombin generation (p < 0.05, all) were observed. These results show no effects of exercise training on markers of hypercoagulability in our population with combined type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. The association between poor glycaemic control and tissue factor pathway inhibitor might indicate increased endothelial activation. More pronounced hypercoagulability and increased tissue factor pathway inhibitor were demonstrated in patients with albuminuria.