Prevalence of Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection and Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Rates Among US Adult Men: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013-2014

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Abstract

Importance

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common sexually transmitted infection that is a major cause of noncervical anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. Prophylactic HPV vaccine is available for primary prevention. However, the population prevalence data for male genital HPV infection is not well known, while the HPV vaccination coverage is low in the United States.

Objectives

To estimate the prevalence of genital HPV infection and the HPV vaccination rate in the United States among adult men and to examine potential risk factors for HPV infection.

Design, Setting, and Participants

The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) samples a representative cross-section of the US population. Men aged 18 to 59 years were examined in mobile examination centers during the NHANES 2013-2014. DNA was extracted from self-collected penile swab specimens, and HPV genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Demographic and vaccination information was gathered via self-report during home-based standardized interviews. Binary multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of HPV infection.

Main Outcomes and Measures

The prevalence of genital HPV infection and the HPV vaccination coverage rate among adult men.

Results

During the NHANES 2013-2014, a total of 1868 men aged 18 to 59 years were examined. The overall genital HPV infection prevalence was 45.2% (95% CI, 41.3%-49.3%). The infection prevalence with at least 1 high-risk HPV subtype defined by DNA testing was 25.1% (95% CI, 23.0%-27.3%). In vaccine-eligible men, the prevalence of infection with at least 1 HPV strain targeted by the HPV 4-valent vaccine and HPV 9-valent vaccine was 7.1% (95% CI, 5.1%-9.5%) and 15.4% (95% CI, 11.7%-19.6%), respectively. Among vaccine-eligible men, the HPV vaccination coverage was 10.7% (95% CI, 7.8%-14.6%).

Conclusions and Relevance

Among men aged 18 to 59 years in the United States, the overall prevalence of genital HPV infection was 45.2% (95% CI, 41.3%-49.3%). The overall genital HPV infection prevalence appears to be widespread among all age groups of men, and the HPV vaccination coverage is low.

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