Maturation-Related Differences in Adaptations to Resistance Training in Young Male Swimmers
Moran, J, Sandercock, GRH, Ramírez-Campillo, R, Wooller, J-J, Logothetis, S, Schoenmakers, PPJM, and Parry, DA. Maturation-related differences in adaptations to resistance training in young male swimmers. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 139–149, 2018—This study examined the effects of resistance training on muscular strength and jump performances in young male swimmers. It was hypothesized that adaptations would be of a lower magnitude in less mature (prepeak height velocity [PHV]) than in more mature (post-PHV) subjects. Fourteen pre-PHV (−1.8 ± 1.0 years) and 8 post-PHV (1.6 ± 0.5 years) swimmers undertook a 30 minutes, twice-weekly resistance training program for 8 weeks. They were compared with matched control groups (pre-PHV: −2.0 ± 1.1, n = 15; post-PHV: 1.2 ± 1.0, n = 7). The effects on lower-body isometric strength (LBS), measured with midthigh pull, and vertical jump (VJ) height in the post-PHV group were large (effect size: 1.3 [0.4 to 2.2]) and small (0.4 [−0.4 to 1.2]), respectively. Effects on LBS and VJ height in the pre-PHV group were moderate (0.8 [0.1 to 1.4]) and trivial (0.2 [−0.5 to 0.8]), respectively. Estimates in the post-PHV control group (LBS: 0.7 [−0.2 to 1.6]; VJ: 0.2 [−0.7 to 1.0]) and the pre-PHV control group (LBS: 0.1 [−0.5 to 0.7]; VJ: −0.3 [−0.9 to 0.3]) may indicate the extent to which maturation could contribute to the performance changes seen in the respective training groups. Lower-body isometric strength and VJ are trainable, but to different magnitudes, in pre- and post-PHV swimmers. After appropriate foundational training to establish technical competency, twice-weekly resistance training sessions of 30 minutes duration, comprising 3 sets of 4 exercises can be effective in pre- and post-PHV youth.