Characteristics and operative treatment of extremely giant liver hemangioma >20 cm

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Abstract

Background:

Giant liver hemangioma >20 cm may cause severe complications; therefore, operative treatment can be highly difficult and risky. No studies have been performed to determine the characteristics of this subgroup.

Methods:

A retrospective study was performed on 141 patients who underwent operative treatment for liver hemangioma. The patients were divided into an extremely giant hemangioma group (>20 cm, 36 cases) and a giant hemangioma group (>10 cm but <20 cm, 105 cases). A comparison was then made between the groups. For patients in the extremely giant hemangioma group, further comparison was also made between liver resection and enucleation.

Results:

Compared with the giant hemangioma group, patients in the extremely giant hemangioma group had greater rates of leukopenia (P < .001), anemia (P < .001), thrombocytopenia (P < .001), pancytopenia (P < .001), prolonged prothrombin time (P < .001), and Kasabach-Merritt syndrome (P = .001). Patients in the extremely giant hemangioma group also had greater rates of compression of the hepatic vein (P < .001), inferior vena cava (P < .001), and porta hepatis (P < .001). The extremely giant hemangioma group had more blood loss (P < .001) and autologous transfusion (P < .001), greater rates of blood transfusion (P < .001), and greater postoperative stays (P < .001). Morbidity was greater in the extremely giant hemangioma group; however, this difference was not statistically significant (P = .076). For patients in the extremely giant hemangioma group, no differences were detected regarding autologous transfusion, blood transfusion, or morbidity between enucleation and liver resection.

Conclusion:

Extremely giant hemangiomas may cause abnormalities in the hematologic and coagulation systems. Operative treatment may be difficult and risky but can be completed safely.

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