Effect of opposing implant prostheses on periodontal pathogens in dentures: A pilot study

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Abstract

Statement of problem.

An understanding of the presence of periodontal pathogens in denture plaque is important for the treatment of patients with edentulism. However, current data are limited and inconclusive.

Purpose.

The purpose of this pilot clinical study was to investigate whether opposing implant prostheses affect the presence of periodontal pathogens in maxillary complete dentures.

Material and methods.

Twenty adult participants were enrolled in the study. The complete denture (CD/CD) group included 7 participants with complete maxillary and mandibular dentures. The implant overdenture (CD/IOD) group included 13 participants with maxillary complete-denture opposing implant overdentures. Plaque from maxillary complete dentures was collected and genomic DNA was extracted. Periodontal pathogens includedAggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans,Eikenella corrodens,Fusobacterium nucleatum,Porphyromonas gingivalis,Prevotella intermedia, andTannerella forsythia, and the total bacteria numbers were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. A comparison of the detection rates and levels of periodontal pathogens between the 2 groups was performed using the chi-square test and the Mann-WhitneyUtest, respectively. Associations among these pathogens were determined using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient.

Results.

No significant differences (P>.05) in detection rates were found between the CD/CD and CD/IOD groups forA actinomycetemcomitans(100% versus 100%, respectively),E corrodens(71.4% versus 76.9%, respectively),F nucleatum(100% versus 69.2%, respectively),Porphyromonas gingivalis(100% versus 100%, respectively),P intermedia(57.1% versus 84.6%, respectively), andT forsythia(100% versus 92.3%, respectively). No significant differences in periodontal pathogen levels (P>.05) were observed between the 2 groups. Significant positive associations were observed (P<.05) betweenF nucleatumandP intermedia,F nucleatumandT forsythia,F nucleatumandP gingivalis,P intermediaandP gingivalis,P intermediaandA actinomycetemcomitans,T forsythiaandP gingivalis,T forsythiaandA actinomycetemcomitans, andP gingivalisandA actinomycetemcomitans.

Conclusions.

Six investigated periodontal pathogens were widely present in denture plaque. Wearing opposing implant overdentures did not affect the presence and levels of the periodontal pathogens.

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