Impact of Radical Prostatectomy on Long-Term Oncologic Outcomes in a Matched Cohort of Men with Pathological Node Positive Prostate Cancer Managed by Castration

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Abstract

Purpose:

Long-term data supporting the role of primary tumor resection in node positive prostate cancer are lacking. We evaluated the impact of adding radical retropubic prostatectomy to surgical castration on long-term oncologic outcomes in pathological node positive prostate cancer.

Materials and Methods:

We identified men who underwent pelvic lymphadenectomy and orchiectomy within 90 days for pathological node positive prostate cancer from 1966 to 1995. Men treated with radical retropubic prostatectomy in addition to orchiectomy were matched 1:1 to men who underwent orchiectomy alone based on age, year of surgery, clinical grade, clinical T stage, number of positive nodes and preoperative serum prostate specific antigen, the latter from 1987 and thereafter. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were done to compare cancer specific and overall survival.

Results:

The matched cohort included 158 men with 79 in each group. Of men who underwent orchiectomy alone 76 died, including 60 of prostate cancer. Of patients treated with radical retropubic prostatectomy plus orchiectomy 70 died, including 28 of prostate cancer. On Kaplan-Meier analyses prostatectomy plus orchiectomy vs orchiectomy alone was associated with prolonged cancer specific survival (at 20 years 59% vs 18%, log rank p <0.001) and overall survival (at 20 years 22% vs 9%, log rank p <0.001). In Cox models prostatectomy plus orchiectomy vs orchiectomy alone was associated with improved cancer specific survival (HR 0.28, 95% CI 0.17–0.46, p <0.001) and overall survival (HR 0.48, 95% CI 0.34–0.66, p <0.001). Findings were similar in the subset with available preoperative prostate specific antigen values.

Conclusions:

With lifelong followup in nearly the entire cohort, this study demonstrates that adding radical retropubic prostatectomy to surgical castration for pathological node positive prostate cancer is associated with improved cancer specific and overall survival. When technically feasible in well selected patients, aggressive locoregional resection should be considered for node positive prostate cancer as part of a multimodal approach.

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