To assess whether use of Impedance Threshold Device (ITD) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) reduces the degree of post-cardiac arrest Acute Kidney Injury (AKI), as a result of improved hemodynamics, in a porcine model of ventricular fibrillation (VF) cardiac arrest.Methods
After 8 min of untreated cardiac arrest, the animals were resuscitated either with active compression-decompression (ACD) CPR plus a sham ITD (control group, n = 8) or with ACD-CPR plus an active ITD (ITD group, n = 8). Adrenaline was administered every 4 min and electrical defibrillation was attempted every 2 min until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or asystole. After ROSC the animals were monitored for 6 h under general anesthesia and then returned to their cages for a 48 h observation, before euthanasia. Two novel biomarkers, Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) in plasma and Interleukin-18 (IL-18) in urine, were measured at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 24 h and 48 h post-ROSC, in order to assess the degree of AKI.Results
ROSC was observed in 7 (87.5%) animals treated with the sham valve and 8 (100%) animals treated with the active valve (P = NS). However, more than twice as many animals survived at 48 h in the ITD group (n = 8, 100%) compared to the control group (n = 3, 37.5%). Urine IL-18 and plasma NGAL levels were augmented post-ROSC in both groups, but they were significantly higher in the control group compared with the ITD group, at all measured time points.Conclusion
Use of ITD during ACD-CPR improved hemodynamic parameters, increased 48 h survival and decreased the degree of post-cardiac arrest AKI in the resuscitated animals.