Towards better models and mechanistic biomarkers for drug-induced gastrointestinal injury
Adverse drug reactions affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are a serious burden on patients, healthcare providers and the pharmaceutical industry. GI toxicity encompasses a range of pathologies in different parts of the GI tract. However, to date no specific mechanistic diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers or translatable pre-clinical models of GI toxicity exist. This review will cover the current knowledge of GI ADRs, existing biomarkers and models with potential application for toxicity screening/monitoring. We focus on the current gaps in our knowledge, the potential opportunities and recommend that a systematic approach is needed to identify mechanism-based GI biomarkers with potential for clinical translation.