Oriishi, M, Matsubayashi, T, Kawahara, T, and Suzuki, Y. Short-term hypoxic exposure and training improve maximal anaerobic running test performance. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 181–188, 2018—The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of short-term hypoxic exposure and training in the performance of competitive 400- or 800-m runners. Fifteen female competitive 400- and 800-m runners volunteered to participate and were assigned to either the hypoxic (n = 7) or normoxic (n = 8) group. The subjects completed 6 days of training. The hypoxic group trained and slept in normobaric hypoxia, with oxygen concentrations of 14.4 and 16.5% for training and sleep, respectively. The normoxic group trained and slept at sea level. The subjects completed 4 sprint and 5 endurance training sessions during the camp. The subjects underwent a maximal anaerobic running test before and 8 days after the training camp. The maximal power determined by the anaerobic running test improved significantly in the hypoxic group (p ≤ 0.05). Blood lactate concentration at submaximal running speed (275, 300, and 375 m·min−1) in the hypoxic group decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) after the training period. No significant changes in these values were found in the normoxic group. These results suggest that 6 days of hypoxic exposure and training enhanced performance and improved lactate metabolism in 400- and 800-m runners.