Biomarkers of Calcific Aortic Valve Disease
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a highly prevalent cardiovascular disorder accounting for a rising economic and social burden on aging populations. In spite of continuing study on the pathophysiology of disease, there remain no medical therapies to prevent the progression of CAVD. The discovery of biomarkers represents a potentially complementary approach in stratifying risk and timing of intervention in CAVD and has the advantage of providing insight into causal factors for the disease. Biomarkers have been studied extensively in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, with success as additive for clinical and scientific purposes. Similar research in CAVD is less robust; however, the available studies of biomarkers in CAVD show promise for enhanced clinical decision making and identification of causal factors for the disease. This comprehensive review summarizes available established and novel biomarkers in CAVD, their contributions toward an understanding of pathophysiology, their potential clinical utility, and provides an outline to direct future research in the field.