Psychological interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in young survivors of mass violence in low- and middle-income countries: meta-analysis

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The majority of survivors of mass violence live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).


To synthesise empirical findings for psychological interventions for children and adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or depression in LMICs affected by mass violence.


Randomised controlled trials with children and adolescents with symptoms of PTSD and/or depression in LMICs were identified. Overall, 21 812 records were found through July 2016 in the Medline, PsycINFO and PILOTS databases; 21 met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed according to recommended guidelines.


Twenty-one studies were included. Active treatments for PTSD yielded large pre-treatment to post-treatment changes (g = 1.15) and a medium controlled effect size (g = 0.57). Effect sizes were similar at follow-up. Active treatments for depression produced small to medium effect sizes. Finally, after adjustment for publication bias, the imputed uncontrolled and controlled effect sizes for PTSD were medium and small respectively.


Psychological interventions may be effective in treating paediatric PTSD in LMICs. It appears that more targeted approaches are needed for depressive responses.

Declaration of interest


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