Expression of advanced glycation end-products and NFκB in chick embryos exposed to dioxins and treated with acetylsalicylic acid and α-tocopherol
Dioxins have adverse and multifaceted effect on body functions. They are known to be carcinogens, immunotoxins, and teratogenic agents. In vivo, transformation of dioxins occurs after their interaction with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and leads to formation of proinflammatory and toxic metabolites. The aim of this study was to verify whether α-tocopherol (vitamin E) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), could reduce the damage caused by the action of dioxins. Fertile chicken eggs were injected with a solution of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), followed by the injection of α-tocopherol or acetylsalicylic acid. Organs such as heart and liver were dissected from the chick embryos at d 13 and 19 of development and subjected to immunohistochemical analysis of presence of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) in tissues. The AGEs were used as the marker for exposure to dioxins, since it is well established that their level increases in dioxin-damaged tissues. Formation of AGEs was evaluated in embryos exposed to dioxin and treated with vitamin E and/or ASA (against dioxin-exposed, untreated controls). We have found that TCDD causes developmental disorders and increases the level of AGEs in chick embryo tissues. The use of such pharmacological agents as vitamin E, ASA, and combination of ASA and vitamin E, inhibited formation of the AGEs in 13-day-old embryos and reduced the AGEs level in embryos after 19 d of the development.