Influence of sumac (Rhus Coriaria L.) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on egg yolk fatty acid, cholesterol and blood parameters in laying hens
The feed industry has needed to develop alternatives to antibiotics in feed (Hertrampf, 2001; Gurbuz and Ismael, 2016); for that reason, alternative feed supplements have been extensively explored, and considerable attention has been given to essential herbs as alternatives (Gurbuz and Ismael, 2016). Natural growth promoters have several advantages over frequently used antibiotics, as natural promoters are not considered dangerous and are frequently used in animal nutrition (Brenes and Roura, 2010). Sumac and ginger contain flavones, phenolic acids, anthocyanin, hydrolysable tannins and organic acids, such as malice, citric and tartaric acids (Gunduz et al., 2010; Sayedpiran et al., 2011). Akbarian et al. (2011) noted that 0.50 or 0.75% ginger powder decreased cholesterol levels in the egg yolk. Also, Pavlík et al. (2007) observed lower blood triglyceride levels in laying hens fed ginger. These medicinal herbs’ active components, which are often called photobiotics or botanicals, are secondary metabolites in medicinal herbs with positive effects on animal health and productivity (Windisch et al., 2008; Ghazaghi et al., 2014). The beneficial effects of dietary inclusion of medicinal herbs for gut health, digestion of nutrients and intestinal integrity have been previously reported (Brenes and Roura, 2010; Golzadeh et al., 2013). These effects might be directly associated with improvements in laying performance and egg quality. Moreover, the increase in the productive performance of hens due to these medicinal herbs could be attributed to their essential oil content (Herawati, 2006, 2010). There are still some questions regarding the effect of sumac powder (Rhus coriaria L.) and ginger powder (Zingiber officinale) on egg quality, egg yolk cholesterol, some blood parameters, poultry physiology and poultry productivity (Farinu et al., 2004; Elmakki et al., 2014; Abd El‐Galil and Mahmoud, 2015). Antioxidants such as phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and proanthocyanidins is present in sumac and ginger. Sumac and ginger are being investigated for their antioxidant properties, and the demand for antioxidants and food preservative, improving of egg quality, is increasing (Peschel et al., 2006). However, there has been no study regarding the effects of together sumac seed and ginger root powder on the egg cholesterol level, egg fatty acid composition and some blood characteristics (LDL, HDL, total cholesterol and triglycerides) in ATAK‐S laying hens. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the potential effect of different levels of sumac powder and ginger powder in the same study on fatty acid composition, egg yolk cholesterol and some blood characteristics (LDL, HDL, total cholesterol and triglycerides) in laying hens.