The AUA (American Urological Association) QIPS (Quality Improvement and Patient Safety) committee created a white paper on the diagnosis and management of nonneurogenic chronic urinary retention.Materials and Methods:
Recommendations for the white paper were based on a review of the literature and consensus expert opinion from the workgroup.Results:
The workgroup defined nonneurogenic chronic urinary retention as an elevated post-void residual of greater than 300 mL that persisted for at least 6 months and documented on 2 or more separate occasions. It is proposed that chronic urinary retention should be categorized by risk (high vs low) and symptomatology (symptomatic versus asymptomatic). High risk chronic urinary retention was defined as hydronephrosis on imaging, stage 3 chronic kidney disease or recurrent culture proven urinary tract infection or urosepsis. Symptomatic chronic urinary retention was defined as subjectively moderate to severe urinary symptoms impacting quality of life and/or a recent history of catheterization. A treatment algorithm was developed predicated on stratifying patients with chronic urinary retention first by risk and then by symptoms. The proposed 4 primary outcomes that should be assessed to determine effectiveness of retention treatment are 1) symptom improvement, 2) risk reduction, 3) successful trial of voiding without catheterization, and 4) stability of symptoms and risk over time.Conclusions:
Defining and categorizing nonneurogenic chronic urinary retention, creating a treatment algorithm and proposing treatment end points will hopefully spur comparative research that will ultimately lead to a better understanding of this challenging condition.