Risk factors and prognosis of ovarian vein thrombosis

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Abstract

Ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT) remains poorly understood with no consensus regarding its importance or treatment. In this retrospective study, we investigated the clinical features, risk factors, treatment patterns, and prognosis of patients with OVT, including venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrences. Adult patients who presented to our medical center with an identifiable diagnosis of OVT over a 10-year period were included in this retrospective observational study. Individual patient charts were reviewed to collect baseline and outcomes data. We identified 223 women with OVT. Median follow-up was 857 days. Only 36.6% presented with abdominal pain and 61.4% reported a history of gynecologic surgery. Overall, right or left OVT incidence was similar (44.6 and 41.4%, respectively) but peripartum patients were more likely to have right OVT (60.0%, P = 0.03). VTE recurred in 22 (9.9%) women, all of which were remote from the OVT and there were no recurrences in peripartum patients. Mean (± SD) time to recurrence was 409 (± 421) days. Only 7.6% of OVT patients were anticoagulated for OVT; these women had a 38% reduction in VTE recurrence but because of low numbers, this was not statistically significant. VTE recurrence after OVT was associated with greater mortality in all patients, including patients with cancer. OVT is associated with an increased rate of non-OVT recurrence. Peripartum OVT patients appear to constitute a different patient population as they were younger, exhibited different risk factors, and had no increased incidence of recurrence. Although only a minority of patients with OVT was anticoagulated, this group had a reduction in VTE recurrence. A prospective study is needed to determine the utility of anticoagulation for women with OVT.

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