Uniform tissue lesion formation induced by high-intensity focused ultrasound along a spiral pathway
Both theoretical and experimental studies were performed here to investigate the lesion formation induced by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) operating in continuous scanning mode along a spiral pathway. The Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov equation and bio-heat equation were combined in the current model to predict HIFU-induced temperature distribution and lesion formation. The shape of lesion and treatment efficiency were assessed for a given scanning speed at two different grid spacing (3 mm and 4 mm) in the gel phantom studies and further researched in ex vivo studies. The results show that uniform lesions can be generated with continuous HIFU scanning along a spiral pathway. The complete coverage of the entire treated volume can be achieved as long as the spacing grid of the spiral pathway is small enough for heat to diffuse and deposit, and the treatment efficiency can be optimized by selecting an appropriate scanning speed. This study can provide guidance for further optimization of the treatment efficiency and safety of HIFU therapy.