Clastogenic effects of bisphenol A on human cultured lymphocytes
Bisphenol A is an endocrine disrupting compound widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. It is ubiquitously present in the environment, mostly in aquatic environments, with consequent risks to the health of aquatic organisms and humans. In the present study, we analysed the cytogenetic effects of bisphenol A on human lymphocytes using in vitro chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei assays. Lymphocyte cultures were exposed to five different concentrations of BP-A (0.20, 0.10, 0.05, 0.02 and 0.01 μg/mL) for 24 h (for chromosomal aberrations test) and 48 h (for micronuclei test). The concentration of 0.05 µg/mL represents the reference dose established by United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA); 0.02 μg/mL represents the higher concentration of unconjugated BP-A found in human serum and 0.01 μg/mL represents the tolerable daily intake established by European Union. Data obtained from both assays showed significant genotoxic effects of the bisphenol A at concentrations of 0.20, 0.10 and 0.05 μg/mL, whereas at the concentration of 0.02 μg/mL, we observed only a significant increase in the micronuclei frequency. Finally, at the concentration of 0.01 μg/mL, no cytogenetic effects were observed, indicating this latter as a more tolerable concentration for human health with respect to 0.05 μg/mL, the reference dose established by US EPA.