Endothelial dysfunction in normoglycaemic first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with hyperuricaemia
To reveal the effect of hyperuricaemia on endothelial function in normoglycaemic first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods:
In all, 40 first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus with hyperuricaemia, 40 first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus with normouricaemia and 35 healthy subjects without diabetic family history were recruited in this study. Anthropometric parameters as well as blood pressure, blood lipids, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were measured. Insulin resistance was assessed with homoeostasis model assessment index-insulin resistance index. To assess endothelial function, high-resolution ultrasonography was used for measuring flow- and nitroglycerine-mediated brachial artery vasodilation.Results:
When compared with control, flow-mediated dilation was lower in first-degree relatives with or without hyperuricaemia (both p < 0.001). When compared with first-degree relative subjects with normouricaemia, there were lower flow-mediated dilation (p < 0.001) and higher levels of uric acid (p < 0.001), fasting blood glucose (p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (p = 0.001), tumour necrosis factor-α (p < 0.001) and interleukin-6 (p < 0.001) in first-degree relative subjects with hyperuricaemia. Flow-mediated dilation was found to be negatively related to uric acid (r = −0.597, p < 0.001). Stepwise multiple regressions demonstrated that uric acid was a significant determinant of flow-mediated dilation independent of other variables in first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus (β = −0.677, p < 0.001; confidence interval: −0.010 to −0.006).Conclusion:
Further endothelial dysfunction is found in normoglycaemic first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with hyperuricaemia.