Effect of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone on luteinizing hormone secretion in humans
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH, human homologue of RFRP-3) suppresses gonadotropin secretion in animal models, but its effects have not been studied in the human.Objective
We tested the hypotheses that exogenous GnIH inhibits LH secretion (i) in postmenopausal women and (ii) in men concurrently administered exogenous kisspeptin.Design
Following in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies to functionally characterize the GnIH peptide, a dose-finding study (human GnIH: 1·5–150 μg/kg/h, iv for 3 h) was undertaken, and 50 μg/kg/h selected for further evaluation. Five postmenopausal women were administered 50 μg/kg/h iv infusion for 3 h or vehicle on two separate days. Four men were administered kisspeptin-10 (0·3 μg/kg iv bolus) with simultaneous infusion of GnIH (50 μg/kg/h, iv for 3 h) or vehicle.Participants
Healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 58 ± 2 years, LH: 30·8 ± 2·9 IU/l, FSH: 78·7 ± 6·4 IU/l, oestradiol: <50 pmol/l) and men (39·8 ± 2·1 years, mean total testosterone 12·1 ± 1·8 nmol/l, LH 2·2 ± 0·2 IU/l).Primary outcome
Change in area under curve (AUC) of LH during GnIHvs vehicle.Results
During GnIH administration in postmenopausal women, LH secretion decreased (ΔAUC: −9·9 ± 1·8 IU/3 h) vs vehicle (ΔAUC: −0·5 ± 1·7 IU/3 h; P = 0·02). Kisspeptin-10-stimulated LH responses in men were not affected by GnIH co-administration (60-min AUC of LH 6·2 ± 0·8 IU/h with kisspeptin-10 alone, 6·3 ± 1·0 IU/h, kisspeptin-10 with GnIH, P = 0·72). Exogenous GnIH was well tolerated, with no adverse events reported.Conclusions
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone decreased LH secretion in postmenopausal women in this first-in-human study. Kisspeptin-stimulated LH secretion in men was not inhibited during concomitant administration of GnIH.