Association of Vitamin D Metabolites with Parathyroid Hormone, Fibroblast Growth Factor-23, Calcium, and Phosphorus in Dogs with Various Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease.

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Hypovitaminosis D is associated with progression of renal disease, development of renal secondary hyperparathyroidism (RHPT), chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD), and increased mortality in people with CKD. Despite what is known regarding vitamin D dysregulation in humans with CKD, little is known about vitamin D metabolism in dogs with CKD.


The purpose of our study was to further elucidate vitamin D status in dogs with different stages of CKD and to relate it to factors that affect the development of CKD-MBD, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), calcium, and phosphorus concentrations.


Thirty-seven dogs with naturally occurring CKD were compared to 10 healthy dogs. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2 D], and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [24,25(OH)2 D], and PTH and FGF-23 concentrations were measured. Their association with serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations and IRIS stage was determined.


Compared to healthy dogs, all vitamin D metabolite concentrations were significantly lower in dogs with International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) stages 3 and 4 CKD (r [creatinine]: -0.49 to -0.60; P < .05) but not different in dogs with stages 1 and 2 CKD. All vitamin D metabolites were negatively correlated with PTH, FGF-23, and phosphorus concentrations (r: -0.39 to -0.64; P < .01).


CKD in dogs is associated with decreases in all vitamin D metabolites evaluated suggesting that multiple mechanisms, in addition to decreased renal mass, affect their metabolism. This information could have prognostic and therapeutic implications.

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