Idalopirdine (Lu AE58054) is a high affinity and selective antagonist for the human serotonin 5-HT6 receptor (Ki 0.83 nM) in phase III development for mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease as an adjunct therapy to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs). We have studied the effects of idalopirdine on extracellular levels of monoamines, glutamate and acetylcholine in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of freely-moving rats using microdialysis. Idalopirdine (10 mg/kg p.o.) increased extracellular levels of dopamine, noradrenaline and glutamate in the mPFC and showed a trend to increase serotonin levels. No effect was observed on acetylcholine levels. The AChEI donepezil (1.3 mg/kg s.c.) significantly increased the levels of acetylcholine. Pretreatment with idalopirdine 2 h prior to donepezil administration potentiated the effect of donepezil on extracellular acetylcholine levels. The idalopirdine potentiation of donepezil-induced increase in acetylcholine levels was also observed during local infusion of idalopirdine (6 μg/ml) into the mPFC by reverse dialysis. The data from the current study may provide a mechanistic model for the pro-cognitive effects observed with administration of idalopirdine in donepezil-treated patients with Alzheimer's disease observed in the phase 2 studies (Wilkinson et al. 2014).