Daphnetin-mediated Nrf2 antioxidant signaling pathways ameliorate tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death
Daphnetin (Daph), a natural coumarin derivative isolated from plants of the Genus Daphne, possesses abundant biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer properties. In the present study, we focused on investigating the protective effect of Daph against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction and the involvement of underlying molecular mechanisms. Our findings indicated that Daph effectively inhibited t-BHP-stimulated cytotoxicity, cell apoptosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction, which are associated with suppressed reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels and glutathione (GSH)/GSSG (oxidized GSH) ratio. Further investigation indicated that Daph significantly suppressed cytochrome c release and NLRP3 inflammasome activation and modulated apoptosis-related protein Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 expression. Moreover, Daph dramatically induced the expression of the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier (GCLM) subunit and the glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC) subunit, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and NAD (P) H: quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), which is largely dependent on upregulating the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation, reducing the Keap1 protein expression, and strengthening the antioxidant response element (ARE) promoter activity. Additionally, Daph remarkably activated a c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, but ERK and JNK inhibitor pretreatment exhibited an evident decrease of the level of Daph-enhanced Nrf2 nuclear translocation. Furthermore, Daph exposure suppressed t-BHP-induced cytotoxicity and ROS overproduction, which are mostly blocked in Nrf2 knockout RAW 264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages. Accordingly, Daph exhibited protective roles against t-BHP-triggered oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction by the upregulation of Nrf2 antioxidant signaling pathways, which may be involved in the activation of JNK and ERK.Graphical abstract
Scheme summarizing the protection of t-BHP-induced RAW 264.7 cell mitochondrial dysfunction by Daph via activation of the Keap1-Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway.