Activity of inflammatory bowel disease influences the expression of cytokines in gingival tissue
This study assessed the cytokine expression in gingival and intestinal tissues from periodontitis patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and evaluated if IBD activity is a covariate to the amount of gingival cytokines. Paired gingival and intestinal tissues were collected from 21 patients and homogenised using a cell disruptor. Cytokine expression (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-25, IL-31, IL-33, IL-17A, IL-17F, IFN-γ, sCD40L, and TNF-α) was evaluated using bead-based multiplex technology. An inflammation score was developed using the intestinal cytokines that showed good accuracy to discriminate IBD active patients from those in remission and then a similar score was applied to gingival tissue. IL-4, IL-10 and IL-21 expressions were significantly increased in gingival tissue from patients with an active disease as compared to those with a disease in remission. The inflammation score (mean value of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-21, and sCD40L) was significantly higher in gingival tissue from patients with IBD activity. There was a significant correlation between gingival and intestinal inflammation scores (rho = 0.548; P = 0.01). Significantly higher IL-23 and IFN-γ levels and lower IL-31 and TNF-α levels were observed in gingival tissues than in intestinal ones. Activity of inflammatory bowel disease influenced the cytokine expression in gingival tissue.