Activity of inflammatory bowel disease influences the expression of cytokines in gingival tissue

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Abstract

This study assessed the cytokine expression in gingival and intestinal tissues from periodontitis patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and evaluated if IBD activity is a covariate to the amount of gingival cytokines. Paired gingival and intestinal tissues were collected from 21 patients and homogenised using a cell disruptor. Cytokine expression (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-25, IL-31, IL-33, IL-17A, IL-17F, IFN-γ, sCD40L, and TNF-α) was evaluated using bead-based multiplex technology. An inflammation score was developed using the intestinal cytokines that showed good accuracy to discriminate IBD active patients from those in remission and then a similar score was applied to gingival tissue. IL-4, IL-10 and IL-21 expressions were significantly increased in gingival tissue from patients with an active disease as compared to those with a disease in remission. The inflammation score (mean value of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-21, and sCD40L) was significantly higher in gingival tissue from patients with IBD activity. There was a significant correlation between gingival and intestinal inflammation scores (rho = 0.548; P = 0.01). Significantly higher IL-23 and IFN-γ levels and lower IL-31 and TNF-α levels were observed in gingival tissues than in intestinal ones. Activity of inflammatory bowel disease influenced the cytokine expression in gingival tissue.

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