The Influence of Psychosocial Constructs on the Adherence to Active Surveillance for Localized Prostate Cancer in a Prospective, Population-based Cohort.

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the influence of psychosocial factors such as prostate cancer (PCa) anxiety, social support, participation in medical decision-making (PDM), and educational level on patient decisions to discontinue PCa active surveillance (AS) in the absence of disease progression.

METHODS

The Comparative Effectiveness Analysis of Surgery and Radiation study is a prospective, population-based cohort study of men with localized PCa diagnosed in 2011-2012. PCa anxiety, social support, PDM, educational level, and patient reasons for discontinuing AS were assessed through patient surveys. A Cox proportional hazards model examined the relationship between psychosocial variables and time to discontinuation of AS.

RESULTS

Of 531 patients on AS, 165 (30.9%) underwent treatment after median follow-up of 37 months. Whereas 69% of patients cited only medical reasons for discontinuing AS, 31% cited at least 1 personal reason, and 8% cited personal reasons only. Patients with some college education discontinued AS significantly earlier (hazard ratio: 2.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 3.2) than patients with less education. PCa anxiety, social support, and PDM were not associated with seeking treatment.

CONCLUSION

We found that 31% of men who choose AS for PCa discontinue AS within 3 years. Eight percent of men who sought treatment did so in the absence of disease progression. Education, but not psychosocial factors, seems to influence definitive treatment-seeking. Future research is needed to understand how factors unrelated to disease severity influence treatment decisions among patients on AS to identify opportunities to improve adherence to AS.

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