Characterization of IL-1β and two types of IL-1 receptors in miiuy croaker and evolution analysis of IL-1 family

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Interleukin (IL)-1β is a prototypical proinflammatory cytokine that belongs to the IL-1 family. This cytokine possesses two receptor types, namely, IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) and IL-1 receptor type II (IL-1RII). IL-1RI, is an IL-1 receptor that plays a crucial role in immune responses and IL-1RII is a decoy receptor for IL-1β signaling inhibitors in mammals. IL-1β, together with its two types of receptors, has been characterized in mammals and implicated in immunity. However, IL-1β and IL-1 receptors in teleost species have been rarely investigated. In this study three genes, namely, IL-1β, IL-1RI, and IL-1RII, were identified and characterized from miiuy croaker. Structural and comparative analysis revealed that miiuy croaker IL-1β, IL-1RI and IL-1RII, particularly their functional domains, were conservative in most of the species. Simultaneously, synteny phylogenetic analysis indicated that IL-1β and IL-18 were widely distributed in vertebrates and hence might be the ancestors of the IL-1 family. Challenge experiment demonstrated that IL-1β, IL-1RI and IL-1RII expression in miiuy croaker was induced by LPS and poly (I:C). IL-1RI expression was also induced by the overexpressed miiuy croaker IL-1β protein which in cell supernatant, whereas IL-1RII was not induced.

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